The Instructor will introduce themselves to the student along with determining the student's level of driving experience. The instructor will check for a valid Pennsylvania driver's permit or license prior to the student driving.
Familiarization of Interior Components
- Visual inspection of the body for dents, chips and scratches to vehicle.
- Check windshield for cracks, current inspection sticker.
- Visual inspections of tires for tread wear, over or under inflation, punctures or foreign objects imbedded in tire.
- Check underneath vehicle for fluid leaks.
Operating Vehicle Control Devices
- Safety, Communication, Comfort and Convenience Devices
- Seat Adjustment
- Seat Belts
- Head Restraints
- Mirror Adjustments, Both Sides and Rearview
- Windows and Locks
- Headlights, Low and High Beam
- Turn Signals Left, Right
- Hood Release
- Trunk Release
- Hazard/Emergency Flashers
- Windshield Wipers, Delay, Wash, Low and High Speeds
- Instrument Cluster, Tachometer, Speedometer, (MPH and Kilometers), Odometer, Fuel Gauge, Temperature Gauge, Warning Lights (Red or Yellow), Cruise Control
- Gas Door, Hood, and Trunk Release
- Heater, Defroster and Air Conditioner
- Steering Wheel, Steering Wheel Adjustments
- Gear Shift Selector, (Column or Console), (P,R,N,D,3,2,1)
- Parking Brake, Foot or Hand
- Ignition Switch
- Accelerator Pedal
- Dummy, Stabilization Pedal
- Brake Pedal
Review of Basic Driving Theories
- Basic Maneuvers in Parking Lot (Beginners)
- Two Basic Steering Methods – Hand Over Hand, Push/Pull
- Procedures for Tracking Forward and Backwards
- Left and Right Turns
- Parking, Perpendicular, Angle, Parallel
- Braking Procedures
- Depth Perception, Field Acuity, Checking for Blind Spots
- On-Road Tracking, Finding Imaginary Center of Road
- Reading Curb Line
- Recognition of Traffic Signs and Pavement Markings
S.I.P.D.E. Theory of Driving
- Never assume you have the right-of-way
- If you think you are capable of doing something dangerous, do not do it. Example: Pulling out into traffic without checking for other roadway users, speeding up to make it through a traffic signal that has turned yellow, changing lanes without checking blind spot
- When a traffic light turns from red to green, always pause for several seconds before proceeding, always check the intersection
- Do not speed up to a traffic signal that is turning red, release the gas pedal and coast till you need to brake
- Approach all intersections with caution, always check for other roadway users
- When driving, remember to always look as far ahead as you can and scan, do not stare. If you look at something for more than two seconds you will head for it. Everything is done at a glance. Check for all road signs, directional lane signs, police or fire personnel, construction workers and temporarily erected road signs
- Check your mirrors at all times, use peripheral vision
- Demonstrate to student how to check for blind spot, first check rear view mirror, then side view mirror to the intended lane, check blind spot making sure to take a quick glance turning your head not your body
- Never trust another driver’s turn signal. You may think he is going to turn, when in reality his signal may have been left on unintentionally from a previous turn, or he may have turned his signal on early.
- When turning onto a two, or more lane highway, always turn into the nearest lane. Identify an illegal intersection where the lane being turned into is a designated left or right turn only and is less than 500 feet in length.
S=Search I=Identify P=Predict D=Decide E-Execute
- Search front, back, left and right for any vehicles or obstructions.
- Identify all other roadway users, i.e. cars, trucks, …
- Predict what they might do, will it impede your intended path of travel
- Decide your course of action – anticipate instead of reacting
- Execute your decision while remembering you can always alter your path
Emphasize to the student the importance of predicting what the other driver might do. Always assume that the person driving the other vehicle is going to do something they should not do.
(Example: a lane change in front of you with little or no space, pulling out in front of you, changing lanes or turning without signaling.) By anticipating and predicting what other drivers will do, they will be better prepared to react faster to the situation
Stress defensive driving, which is a combination of scanning ahead, checking mirrors, using peripheral vision, checking blind spots and being fully aware of their surroundings.
Teach Students the Proper Way to Execute Turns
Teach Students the Proper Procedure for Hand-over-Hand Steering and Push/Pull Steering
- Right Turn – line dashboard up with start of turn, then begin turning
- Remind students that when turning right, allow enough distance to clear curbs, yet keep their distance from oncoming traffic
- Left Turn – line left front tire up with the center line of road, then begin turning. When there is no visible center lane, use YOU best judgment or paving line separating width of roadway
- Remind students not to accelerate through the turn, keep speed constant and vehicle under control. Once turn is completed, straighten steering wheel and accelerate slowly
Push/Pull Steering Method of Turning
- Hands should be placed at nine and three (or lower) on the steering wheel. Remind students of airbag deployment
- Palms of hands should never be placed on the inside of steering wheel
- Never turn the wheel with one hand
- Never let the wheel slide back by relaxing the hands or releasing the steering wheel
- Never drive vehicle using knees
- Anticipate direction of the turn, if the turn goes to the left, bring left hand to twelve o’clock on the steering wheel, allow right hand to slide, maintaining it in the same position, while gently pulling the wheel to the left. Remind students to not jerk steering wheel, or make abrupt steering movements.
- If turn goes to the right, bring right hand to twelve o’clock on the steering wheel, allow the left hand to slide, maintaining it in the same position, while gently pulling the wheel to the right.
- Push/Pull method of turning can be modified to adjust to hand-over-hand turning after turn has been completed.